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[托福培训]举例论证在托福听力中的运用

作者: [db:作者] 分类:英语学习 浏览量:发布时间: 2020-01-14 20:55

今天,阿卡索外教网老师就为大家讲述这个“举例论证法”是如何在托福听力中出现的,同时分析一下,应该如何准备和应对这些出现在托福听力中的“举例论证”。

托福培训中举例论证的重要性想必每个人都知道。实际上,听力中也是有很多举例论证出现的,因为归根结底,我们所面对的听力文本实际上是口语表达。今天,阿卡索外教网就为大家讲述这个“举例论证法”是如何在托福听力中出现的,同时分析一下,应该如何准备和应对这些出现在托福听力中的“举例论证”。

 

常见托福听力题型之举例题

举例题,事实上是托福听力考试中很常见的一种题型,在每场托福考试听力部分中至少会出现2题左右。对应到这种常考题型,有模式化的题型特征,通常问题形式都是Why does the professor mention……? 应对这种题目其实不算难,把握好“举例论证”这种套路的运用,分析出例子的作用就可以了。

 

比如:TPO 24 Lecture 1生物学讲座中的第五题

5. Why does the professor mention dogs?

A. To explain that mammals are more complex than reptiles

B. To point out that crocodiles can communicate with dogs

C. To give an example of mammals that care for their young

D. To emphasize that crocodiles have highly developed brains

这道题目就是一道非常典型的举例题。我们所知道的举例论证的做法通常都是statement + example的形式,那么事实上,我们需要听的获取的信息点就是这个statement部分,也就是我们只要听到一些for example, like, think about, say…这些表示举例关系的考点引导词,然后赶紧回忆前面一句话的内容,并结合例子本身,是不难找到答案的。

 

对应原文:

Crocodiles have about eighteen different sounds that they can make. There’s...um...um… you have deep gr

unting sounds, hisses, growls, are many different sounds to interact or send messages. This is more typical of mammals than of reptiles. I mean, crocodiles' brains are the most developed of any reptile. In that sense, they are closer to mammals' brains than other reptiles' brains. And we know that mammals, dogs for example, dogs vocalize many different sounds. Crocodiles have a similar level of, uh, vocal sophistication, if you will, which makes them unique among reptiles.

首先,我们找到一个表示举例关系的关键词for example, 然后对应到例子前面那句话,crocodiles' brains are the most developed of any reptile. In that sense, they are closer to mammals' brains than other reptiles' brains. 所以很容易地找到了这道题目的答案D。

 

另外,“举例论证法”的中心思想,其实就是为了论证一段话的主要内容,相当于是整个听力文本的分论点,而分论点实际上是为了全文主旨服务的。所以对于这类举例题,我们也可以从主旨出发去选择这些题目的答案。

比如:TPO 14 Lecture 4考古学讲座中的第四题

Why does the professor mention a bottle?

A. To illustrate the shape of the interior of a passage grave

B. To describe part of a Neolithic burial ceremony

C. To help explain how resonance is produced

D. To give an example of an artifact found in a Neolithic site

这篇考古学讲座的主旨是:The sound effects that Neolithic people could experience in passage graves, 而从主旨的角度出发,那么这道题目答案就选出C。甚至夸张地来说,我们没有听到这个例子,也是可以直接选到C的,因为只有C选项中有resonance(声音共鸣,共振)是和主旨对应的。

 

常见听力文章结构:举例论证结构

弄清听力文本的结构对于把握托福听力文章的内容并且做对题目是非常关键的。常见的结构可能是总分结构,递进结构,顺序结构等等,其中包括一种举例结构。那么什么是举例结构呢?顾名思义,也就是整篇文章的布局是主旨加上一段例子。这种文章结构只要把握好主旨,围绕着主旨去听细化的内容就可以了。比如:在TPO 3 Lecture 1环境类讲座中,主旨是讲大范围栖息地的减少,整篇文章就是运用蜂鸟(hummingbird)这种动物来细化文章主旨;又比如,TPO 24 Lecture 1主旨是鳄鱼实际上并没有那么孤立,而是有很多种交流方式,其中一种是声音互动,后面文章举了短吻鳄(alligator)的例子来论证主旨。

 

举例开篇误导主旨的获取

大多数听力文章的开篇都会按照听力文本顺序和题号顺序一致的原则出现道题目主旨题的答案。但是有些文章的开篇是极具诱惑性的,特别是一些举例形式的开篇,而这种开篇的举例,本身也是一个需要听懂理解的考点。

 

比如:TPO 14 Lecture 4考古学讲座

开篇是这样的:

When we think of large monumental structures built by early societies and Egyptian pyramid probably comes to mind. But there are some even earlier structures in the British Isles also worth discussing, and besides the well-known circle of massive stones of Stonehenge which don’t get me wrong is remarkable enough, well, other impressive Neolithic structures are found there too. Oh, yes, we are talking about the Neolithic period here, also called new Stone Age, which was the time before stone tools began to be replaced by tools made by bronze and other metals. It was about 5000 years ago, even before the first Egyptian pyramid that some of amazing Neolithic monuments---tombs, were racketed at the very size around ironed Great Britain and costal

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islands nearby.

这种开篇没有类似于传统的Today we will discuss……, we have been discussing……这样的开篇主旨引导,所以真正的主旨需要往后继续听继续找。

 

但是值得注意的是在常见的“举例题”中,例子本身是不会考的,而是考例子的作用,所以我们对于例子的听力文章获取的要求比较低,但是开篇举例的例子就不一样了,开篇举例是作为一个考察内容,是需要听懂并且理解的。

 

对应题目:TPO 14 Lecture 4考古学讲座中的第二题

Why does the professor mention an Egyptian pyramid?

A. To contrast its purpose with that of monuments found in the British Isles

B. To compare the architectural styles of two Neolithic cultures

C. To describe the outer shape of passage graves in Great Britain and Ireland

D. To help students understand how long ago passage graves were built

我们发现这篇文章的开篇是在讲埃及金字塔之前还有一些历史更加悠久的建筑结构,强调的是时间,所以D选项的how long ago对应到答案。

 

而在这篇文章中,主旨题真正的答案顺序在2:00处,与常见的主旨题听开头的方法是不一致的,极具迷惑性,值得我们注意。而这种形式的文章的开篇也是很常见的。

 

再比如:TPO 4 Lecture 1生物学之动物行为

这篇文章的开篇是这样的:

Ok, the next kind of animal behavior I want to talk about might be familiar to you. You may have seen, for example, a bird that’s in the middle of a mating ritual, and suddenly it stops and preens, you know, takes a few moments to straighten its feathers, and then returns to the mating ritual. This kind of behavior, this doing something that seems completely out of place, is what we call a ‘Displacement Activity’. Displacement activities are activities that animal’s engaging in when they have conflicting drives. If we take our example from a minute ago, if the bird is afraid of its mate, it’s conflicted. It wants to mate but it’s also afraid and wants to run away. So, instead, it starts grooming itself. So, the displacement activity, the grooming, the straightening of its feathers, seems to be an irrelevant behavior.

这篇文章的开头也是这样一个举例,例子本身也在题目中考到了,但是主旨题的答案获取需要往后听或者说需要概括全文内容。

 

综上,举例结构的开篇对于准确地找到主旨题的答案是极具诱惑性的,但是不能把这些内容忽略,这种开篇本身的例子也是会考到的,值得我们注意考点内容的获取。

 

举例信号词引导的其他题型

通常表示举例关系的引导词for example在运用过程中有时候相当于that is“即”这种意思,所以,在有些文章中表示举例的连接词相当于……is called这种&ldquo

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